Turning is a machining process. Turning, like other machining processes, is a material removal process. During turning part of the initial material is removed.
The material worked on turning and other machining processes are carbon steel, copper, stainless steel, aluminum, zinc, magnesium. Other feasible materials are lead, nickel, tin, ceramics, titanium, thermoplastics and thermosets. The parts made with this process are important in industrial, automotive, machinery, telecommunications, and other electrical and electronic components.
- Fix the workpiece into the turning machine. This step depend on size, weight, and other characteristics of the workpiece.
- Cutting tool makes all the necessary cuts to get desired piece.
- Remove material. Change tools and adjusting machine.
After the process isn’t necessary to apply treatment to improve properties.
During the process operations are carried out inside and outside. These operations are: turning, facing, grooving, cut-off, parting, thread cutting, drilling, boring, reaming and tapping.
The necessary equipment most common is the manual lathe. The manual lathe parts are headstock assembly, spindle, workpiece holder, workpiece, tool post, cutting tool, compound, cross slide, tailstock assembly, ways, carriage, cross slide hand wheel, carriage hand wheel, bed, and lead screw.
Turning machine can also be computer controlled. In this case, turning machine is CNC (Computer Numerical Control). The movements of workpiece and cutting tool are preprogrammed. It’s a very high precision turning machine.
Advantages of turning are: Good surface finish. It requires less energy and strength than other processes. Long tool life. Collecting chips is easier. Turning also has disadvantages. Most defects are inaccuracies in a feature`s dimensions or surface roughness.