Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems control the temperature, humidity and quality of air in buildings to a set of chosen conditions. To achieve this, the systems need to transfer heat and moisture into and out of the air as well as control the level of air pollutants, either by directly removing them or by diluting them to acceptable levels.
Moreover, heating, ventilation and air conditioning can account for the majority of money spent by an organization on energy. Even small adjustments to these systems can significantly improve the working environment and at the same time, save money.
The purpose of an HVAC system is to provide the heating, cooling and ventilation requirements of a building over a range of ambient conditions specific to the building location. A system must be designed to cope with the maximum value of each of these requirements. The degree to which an HVAC system fails to match the requirements and overheats overcools or over ventilates the building space determines the amount of energy being wasted.
A simple classification of HVAC systems could be “Central Systems”, “Unitary Systems” and “Induction Systems”:
- Central HVAC systems
Provide a conditioned air supply through a ducting distribution system to control the interior environment of a building. These systems can be from simple and suitable for smaller users to complex and suitable for increased demand as in the case of buildings
- Unitary systems for heating and cooling
Employ a packaged local air handling unit in each room or zone. Energy for heating and cooling is distributed to the packaged units in form of hot water, chilled water or electric power
- Induction systems
Are a combination of central and unitary system. Air is cooled once at a central plant and then conveyed to individual units. The fresh air flow rate and the thermal capacity are selected independently depending on the specific requirements. So, these systems are particularly energy-efficient. These systems are found in high rise office buildings, hotels, hospitals, factories…
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